Category Archives: BCM112

YouTube – converging communication


Question: How does convergence affect the relationship between media technologies and audiences?

Convergence is defined as: ‘the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behaviour of media audiences who would go almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they wanted’ (Jenkins 2006). Convergence has affected media technologies and its audience in both positive and negative ways. Looking at the change of involvement social media has created – the use of social networks for multiple purposes has brought the next generation of users to an era of convergence. Explored through the social platform YouTube this essay will explore the creation of YouTube and social media through convergence, discuss the negative aspects of communication by audiences such as ‘trolls’, ‘trolling’ and ‘flaming’ regarding social media and looking at the aspect of social media brought into the workforce.

The increasing development of technology has allowed YouTube to become an important aspect in the change of today’s user produced, user developed and user consumed media era. Highlighted by the change of the internet from monologic media – one directional consumption of media (creator to consumer), to dialogic – omnidirectional production and consumption of media. YouTube has changed how we view the world by being a main source of research – being the 2nd biggest search engine in the world, exploration – getting involved with other cultures, entertainment – user created content about anything for anyone and revolutionizing entertainment – broadcasting live performances of music and being a source for movies and television shows and education – being a place of research and knowledge with tutorials, guides, walk through, let’s plays and lectures. YouTube has been utilized by its audience and created a place off convergence (O’Neill, M 2010)

The effect of convergence on the audience regarding social media has an obscure effect on the communication that is produced on social media. Looking from an anthropological angle social media has become an everyday part of people’s life, creating a change in cultural identity. This change of cultural identity is driven by the excessive use of social media – created from the idea of convergence. The user produced, user distributed, social interactions that social media creates goes beyond national identities, to create a global culture – a sort of globalization. This global network tears down the oppression from powerful governments and leaders to become a collective voice. With this global identity there is an issue that deals with the individuals that are culturally sensitive, that ignores or adverts from media in general and would rather be isolated. Indicating the intent of convergence on social platforms distinguishes between the cultures that social media is trying to get involved with but the clash of freedom that comes with the access of social media (Coleman, EG 2010).

It is not just the user generated and user created content that converges with social media it is the idea that old forms of media get recreated and reused to become re-established and reaffirm that they are still relevant for people of today – such as books and newspapers. There has become a large amount of user empowerment with access and participation surrounding media technologies on the internet. There is the opportunity to learn the skills needed to create content on the internet, shown by the internet – creating this circular process where an individual engages with what they create and with what others create and passes down that knowledge to others who would like to learn (Croteau, D 2007).

Convergence creates a dilemma with the social interactions that would not have taken place thanks to computer-mediated communication. This way of communicating through social media produces a number of issues that are prevalent in today’s society. Looking at the changes from face-to-face communication to computer-mediated communication there is the obvious loss of emotional signals – the tone/pitch, gestures, movements are gone. The idea of a personal interaction is replaced by computer representation of people’s voices which change/distort the sound. These ideas of convergence dealing with media platforms that are specific to the integration of voice lose the personality and emotional responsibility that people have when talking face-to-face. This loss of emotional observation leads into a loss of empathy and compassion for when dealing with impersonal conversations over the internet. There is a loss of empathy and obligation towards the person that someone talks to, highlighting the way for trolling/flaming and potentially cyber-bullying. This area off convergence has affected the emotional strings that attach people together and the way that they form bonds from face-to-face interaction (Derks, D 2008).

Mentioning the loss of emotional attachment and empathy when dealing with computer-mediated communication – comes flaming. The simple idea of causing trouble by insulting, being annoying, being off topic, just to get a response from other people. The presence of flaming has been relevant to all social networking sites particularly sites which allows commenting. The creation of social media through convergence mixed with the anonymity the internet creates for its users and the emotional detachment that is presented creates this problem of people offending others for most likely their own enjoyment. The presence of flaming on social media does indicate freedom of speech but does bring into question the morality and ethical idea of what should be done about people who do troll/flame that goes beyond the idea of ‘just venting’. It could also be said that the interpretation of what would be considered trolling/flaming is left to the interpretation of the person that created it, the person that read it and the person that it was aimed for (publisher – content that was commented on) (Moor, PJ 2010).

To contrast the creation of flaming by convergence and social media I will explain the defence and evidence about bullying and cyber-bullying. Convergence allows the combination of multiple elements of the internet to become a singular identity such as YouTube. YouTube is then a good source for showing those who are vulnerable and irritable, particularly when it comes to abusive videos being uploaded to YouTube. When observing video of people being bullied, we are given a clear example as to the situations that both affect the person in the video being bullied and also the people that watch the video. There is a great influence on whether the information on what is filmed should be allowed for public viewing – on YouTube and other social sharing sites. This impacts the control of what should be shown on certain mediums. There are restrictions when it comes to obvious destination of the internet for particular viewing – such as porn. However when it comes to the confines of YouTube and their terms and conditions that should control what is on certain sites (Conley, B 2013).

The violence that is present on YouTube (fighting/bullying videos), when it hits mainstream media becomes a serious story. When the videos deal with serious issues such as murder then there becomes an obscure line between the prosecutions of the person who committed the murder. This is due to the influence the media has on people that cause bias and possible agendas of the people that watch – if the trial doesn’t convict then the public would take it into their own hand and condemn the person involved. This is highlighted most recently by the Boston Bombings and the use of 4chan/Reddit being a minute-by-minute description of what is happening but also with all of the footage taken by cameras there will be the civilian involvement where the ordinary person gets involved with something they shouldn’t. Convergence of media has faded the line in which people separate police work and civilian involvement (Swienton, AR 2012)

The uploading of content for YouTube and other social networks creates an online attraction that can – if successful, by having a significant amount of visitors, lead to a paid employment opportunity. Through three steps of Production, Sharing and Transfer people can utilize the creation of social media paid employment. Convergence has opened up the doors for people to produce and consume what they want – a participatory culture, where people can go one step further and create their own work and re-create other people’s work. Taking the audience from consumers to prosumers – production and consumers combined. This result from convergence creates communities and jobs that emphasize what the internet and social media is about (Park, J 2010).

The impersonal approach social media has to offer restricts aspects of running a business that caters to customer service and satisfaction. There is also the topic of workflow in the workforce, when does being on social media change from work related to personal. It is quite contrary to think that there are no aspects of business that doesn’t rely on social media, because social media is the best way to be noticed. This emphasizes the point that the internet and social media has impacted everyday life in ways where we can’t go back to how it was before (Veenswyk, M 2013).

Convergence does affect the relationship between the audience and media technology in both positive and negative ways. Through the introduction of convergence on media platforms the audience has a larger opportunity to create and share their own creations while at any time being a part of something bigger than just them-self – such as a community from YouTube. Convergence does impact on the communication that once was from face-to-face to computer-mediated communication, creating the troll and flaming of users, or seen as a way to vent because of a lack of face-to-face interaction. The audience is free to do what they want, free from oppression and has become more than just having a national identity but a global identity.


Conley, B 2013,’Devono says YouTube case under review’, Tribune Business News, 24January

Coleman, EG 2012,’Ethnographic Approaches to Digital Media’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 39, pp. 487-505

Croteau, D 2007,’The Growth of Self-Produced Media Content and the Challenge to Media Studies’, Critical Studies in Media Communication, vol. 23, no.4, pp. 340-344

Derks, D Fischer, AH and Bos, AER 2008, ‘the role of emotion in computer-mediated communication: A review’, Computers in Human Behaviour, vol. 26, pp. 766-785

Jenkins, H 2006, Welcome to Convergent Culture  June 19th 2006, accessed June 6th 2013

Moor, PJ Heuvelman, A and Verleur, R 2010,’ Flaming on YouTube’, Computers in Human Behaviour, vol. 26, no. 6, pp 1536-1546

O’Neill, M 2010,’5 Ways YouTube has Changed the World forever’, Social Times, review, 8 November, viewed 1 May 2013

Park, J and Van Der Schaar, M 2012,’A Game Theoretic Analysis of Incentives in Content Production and Sharing Over Peer-to-Peer Networks’, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, vol. 4, no. 4 pp. 704-717

Swienton, AR and Upshaw-Downs, JC 2012,’Ethics in Media’, in Swienton, AR and Upshaw-Downs, JC (ed.), Ethics in forensic Science, Elsevier, USA, pp. 425 – 440

Veenswyk, M 2013,’Social Media: the workflow challenge’, Digital Marketing Blog, weblog post, 13 March, viewed 1 May 2013,

Reflection for #bcm112


BreflectionCM112 for me has been a very interesting subject and also a great introduction into Media Practises. I am happy with the type of assessments that are included (not so much the essay), in particular the blog approach to get an online portfolio, which is a great central location for the students/my ideas.

The medium is the message: trajectories of convergent (Week 2) brought to my attention the word ‘convergence’ and the triangle of creation (Technologies, Audiences and Industries) to show me the ever changing approach to how content is created and distributed. The act that global business are going further then just creating content to watch but to play with, change and edit. Week 2 was also the first week I started my blog, so it is good to see the change from week to week.

Copyright (Week 3) had an interesting impact with the technology that I follow (YouTube). I was always interested in understanding why certain content from a game could be reproduced, such as the game Minecraft – a widely played game where people play the game and film themselves then post it on YouTube. The creators of Minecraft realise people will film and share what they do so the creators allow for this, mentioned in their terms. I find it interesting that more gaming companies allow for the film and sharing of their content online, which is a good step in understanding why big business’ can not control everything that is being put online.

Week 10s #mencallmethings: identity and difference online was interesting. I never really took note to the idea of specific webpages for each gender; what attracts the specific gender and the contribution that males/females make to the site that they regularly visit and to ones they do not.

BCm112 has been an enjoyable subject that pretty much has set in what I want to do at University and a stepping stone to what I want to do in the future.

Lucky to be born a white male


The Internet – a place in which people around the world can communicate. There has always been an issue about the freedom that the internet provides. The anonymity of posting and responding to any comment that someone has made – changing the idea of ‘creative criticism’ to outright abuse.

Lucky to be born a male; any abuse made would be quite different when having an opinion, compared to that of a women. The internet is being used as a tool for the possible ‘suppressed’ misogynist that is present in the average male. The faceless interactions, lack of regulation and the inability to do anything by the target, leads to a public outcry. Brought to our attention is the website ‘The Anti-Bogan’ which highlights the offensive and abusive messages said by Australians to other Australians. Is there a transition, a ‘fine line’ from when free speech becomes hate speech?

Looking at the difference between the abuse that men receive compared to the abuse women receive over the internet is of some concern. Women are more common to get abusive messages relating to sexual acts, either by rape (human, animal or object), mutation of sexual organs or the accusation of being ‘whores’, ‘sluts’ and ‘slags’, for example (the abuse isn’t always just from men).

A majority of the internet exacerbates the issue of sexism, such as through humour with the following e-cards and memes:

sexist ecard

sexist meme

There seems to still be an inequality when it comes to certain issues, much like the case of women on the internet, the specific sexual abusive messages that they receive and the portrayal of women on social media.

When does the abuse become too much to handle for an individual? The female personalities on the internet need to be aware of certain opinions that may fuel a ‘flame war’, which could easily get off topic – changing from creative criticism to just abuse.

Digital Activist


Activism and politics for the modern student has been seen as a problem, there is little to no public meet-ups protesting against “the man”, the government or the elitist, so what has happened? Where are the opinions and expressions of “Generation Technology”?


Social media, not just an excuse to play games and watch kittens play (no matter how cute), but an infinite opportunity to create and be a part of something bigger and better than what you could do without the global connection. The internet is where we are all going to have a voice and we are proving to have an opinion on the issues of today, being apart of the “clicktivism” culture. Websites such as and GetUp! provide a central location to sign petitions dealing with issues of today such as the petition “Facebook: Immediately remove the racist page called “Aboriginal Memes”“, which was seen as offensive and prejudice to Aboriginals. With the collective and active voice of one person, they stood for something and brought it to the attention of others… and they succeeded, the page and any other copycat groups have been deleted.

With regards to the petition sights ( and GetUp) you can view any campaign that is brought up and any campaign that has been successful, however, I do not see any option that shows the amount of issues/campaigns/petitions that failed – trying to put a contrast on what people are interested in and the statistics to show how successful these sights are.

The activism from generation to generation has changed dramatically. Today we are a participatory culture that utilizes social network to voice our issues and concerns with global issues – seen through Kony 2012 and The Occupy Movement, each utilizing social media (Twitter, Facebook and YouTube) to get a message across. Then getting picked up by bloggers, television stations and radio stations to spread and emphasize the importance of what is happening and to do something about it.

There are times when the support on the internet and the ideas for change do not cross over to “out-on-the-streets” protests in attempt to get changes, highlighted by this article on the Aljazerra website by Jesse Strauss, establishing that a cause on social media, like The Occupy Movement isn’t always thought through and the idea for an outcome is seen through hope, patience and determination.

To say “Generation Technology” are not in touch with politics and activism seems to be untrue. The dedication and passion is present, the causes are true and the global awareness is possible – just, maybe the execution is off. It just gets done in a different way!

Re-mix me a word


Free of restrictions and limited resources comes a new wave of engaging with content and an audience – in the way of the remix culture. Far from the ‘copyright police’ comes a creative, rebellious and inspiring look into the development and representation of what we know the media to be.

Getting a hold of content and creating a new meaning and representation of that content is ideal for the remix culture. Allowing for the spread of personal content so others can use and create is beneficial for both bringing out creativity and expression, but also being an influence on the democratic – popularizing the freedom in producing content and collective intelligence in creating content.

The remix culture has always been around (well for me it has), it has been in the music industry with music artist Weird Al Yankovic. Who produces parodies of other artists music such as the following video, which is a parody of Lady Gaga’s song “Born This Way” called “Perform This Way”.

Other remixes have been in movies such as the Scary Movie movies which deal with a satirical look at multiple movies and celebrity personalities put together to poke fun and take a look at the obscure ideas some of the movies represent.

Today’s technology has given us the freedom to channel what we want to say and send it out to the world for others to learn and watch and if they so choose, to add, and so this cycle of creativity and distribution continues. YouTube and many other mediums give people the opportunity to share what they have created and explore what it means to be in a technological world; only if it is free though. Unlike YouTube, corporations and thus artists (some) still stand against the idea of their work used by others to produce something new and creative, hindering true creativity.

Transmedia confusion with a lot of grey


Transmedia storytelling represents a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience. – Henry Jenkins

This blog post has taken me a while to write because there was a lot of grey area with what I thought about the topic, so I had to try and find a good understanding of what is and what is not in the grey area. A main point in my confusion with what Transmedia storytelling is, is the intention of creating a multichannel production to begin with and if the production is an on-going series over multiple channels/platforms then can you count it as Transmedia?

My example is the Pokémon franchisePikachu-losing-weight. Since it was first created in 1996 in Japan, the intention of Pokémon became to create a television show to sell the games. While the intent of story is told mainly through the television show, there are individual aspects that are separated for each channel Pokémon has been established on.

The games give a unique perspective of what is around the towns that the anime brings up, also the hands-on involvement of being a Pokémon Trainer and setting out for your own quest. The manga involves stories that occur in the Pokémon World that do not act as one consecutive story – just small parts. The Pokémon Trading Card Game uses the intent of creating physical objects (cards) that were meant to be played along with the video game series. Over the past 15 years Pokémon has been transformed over multiple channels, games, T.V series, manga and movies – each being relevant to another.

Considering the 10 different points outlined by Henry Jenkins (hyperlink above) on what makes something Transmedia, I would guess it would seem that a production would need to tick a point explained. Pokémon being around for 15 years, having an impact on a majority of channels/mediums – so to target a majority of people, has successfully utilized the idea of transmedia production.

Transmedia projects have become an impressive and interesting way to utilize multiple markets and therefore a larger audience. The intent to carefully play a movie off a game, off a book, off cards, to create one main story has become a powerful tool reflecting on what technology has become, and also reflecting on the intent for a wider consumer range over multiple channels, cashing in on the different interests of people.

“Got any news for me, I’m running a little low?”


What is a citizen journalist? Oxford Dictionary defines ‘citizen journalist’ as “a non-professional journalist, typically working outside traditional media channels”.

To deal with the mass change of technology that we have today and the consistent up-to-date 24/7 news stories that are being published there is an opening for anyone to report about news and be a citizen journalist.

To be a citizen journalist is to do nothing more than report by filming or making a comment on an event that is happening and post it to, usually a social networking site. There is always the clash that revolves around old media (corporate) vs. new media, explained (briefly) by the following video:

The end part of the above clip when both mediums say “Got any news for me, I’m running a little low?” highlights the difference in monologic and dialogic collective intelligence used to gather news and present it. The old style newspaper symbolises the structured, professional journalists and the young sounding laptop represents amateur, unprofessional, collective information from  “bloggers”.

The change from old to new has arrived and it is in the form of collective intelligence both intentionally such as the website Alltop which deals with an individual, collectively gathering information of their interests around the internet to then repost to a single spot or view popular links and be presented by a page which gathers information from citizen journalists and shows the recent information talked about. Then there is the unintentional act of citizen journalism which is the simple recording or messaging of an event that is happening and then placed on the internet and used to recollect the events of what happened and the experiences involved. Pretty much a step-by-step look at global issues that are not edited or modified – presented by the following clip:

There will always be a place for citizen journalism because there will always be events taking place that need to be reported on and first-hand experience needed. There are stories that need to be told, and be told without modification or change by corporate agenda.

All you have to do is send a message?


It starts with one person creating a message, this person sends the message and another person replies and forwards the message to other people, they then continue to spread the single message created. In no time at all, the message has reached a majority of people all over the world. This one simple message can create an infinite loop around the world back to the person that created it.

global network BCM112Welcome to a Participatory culture!

It use to be so easy to just watch television, or listen to the radio with no need for interaction. Oh how times have changed, with some simple clicks and pushes of buttons on a computer you have probably given information about yourself to a collection database. You have participated in sharing music and funny videos, collectively had an opinion on the current music scene or the latest celebrity scandal, or writing a blog for University to be seen as an outlet for understanding or the confusion of weekly topics.

This interaction has lead to the change of people from consumers to prosumers. This is evident all over the internet, this idea of collective creative and expression has been highlighted by specific website ideas such as YouTube, Twitter and Facebook. A main difference that has created these “prosumers” are the everyday activities that get oppressed by Government censorship such as those in China – when Twitter was able to let everyone know there was an earthquake; and, also with the Egypt evolution in 2011.

With the potential for social networks being used as a platform for the dissemination of issues, there will always be a chance for the mobilization of large groups supporting issues that are collectively disagreed on, this creates a level of involvement that both allows for co-ordination and a civic engagement of people to allow for a chance to be heard. This puts the pressure on government censorship and restrictions, it has yet been understood as to whether governments will continue to censor their people but with the internet and its freedom, are the restrictions going to be lifted or are more is a more harsh censorship going to be in-placed?

political correctness BCM112

Open Permission, Closed Access


Over the past couple of weeks I have come to realise a couple of things about myself and technology:

1. I am a capable user of the internet yet have not yet experienced anything that is outside what I have created – I have organised the internet and the way I use it around my ideals; pretty much what I am interested in.

2. When an old analogue technology becomes obsolete it doesn’t bother me, I know it will come back combined in another platform where it will feel exactly the same – except way better! {Convergence}

3. My choices of technology seem to border more on open access content rather than close access. Realising the technology I have around me – Android phone and a P.C

ideology BCM112

I was introduced to Company Ideologies (Apple and Android) and how they differ for a user but also for the company. Starting with Apple and IPhone creator Steve Jobs, I am given the perspective that to maintain control over what a user can do is necessary to ensure a balance of power for the company and also balance the ignorance of the user. In the case of an IPhone, it is a sterile tool, as Steve Jobs said

“We define everything that is on the phone. . . . You don’t want your phone to be like a PC. The last thing you want is to have loaded three apps on your phone and then you go to make a call and it doesn’t work anymore.”

To give people the freedom of technology with the ability to change the original intentions is something that should not be allowed. People are aware of the basics of the technology they hold, why then would the user change that and potentially destroy/damage its use.

I find myself understanding and agreeing with Steve Jobs and his ideology, I am conflicted with the issue of ignorant users not knowing what they are doing with todays technology… and it is quite scary. To undermine the specific use of technology, such as the IPhone, seems absurd, why change something that is meant to be “perfect”.

In contrast, is Android, an open access software where multiple companies come together to change and compete for the sale of a product, and still maintain a dominance over the smartphone market (shown below). Just understanding the process of Android feels empowering, the amount of people that input into a product is only restricted by imagination.

smartphone market share BCM112

“Let’s Play! Ctrl C, Ctrl V”


Copyright was brought to my attention and the ways in which Industries attempt to control what can and cannot be done with content that is not your own. Certain aspects stood out to me, the idea that Industries need control in order to maintain a balance of power and to protect their assets, and also this idea that to copyright something is to restrict the creativity and/or progress in technological advancement. The Industries can’t just bully people, the content is theirs to control? This isn’t always the case, is it?

Copyright BCM112

Without the permission to use other peoples content and to also not credit where that content came from – that is a bad thing, yes? There have been countless examples of people taking credit (mistakenly) for what is not theirs. This especially happens in music – here are some cases.

Videogames have a different perspective when it comes to copyright infringement. There is a common concept on YouTube called “Let’s Play“, where people play a game (PS3, Xbox360, Wii U, PC), record what they play, add some commentary and upload it to YouTube. What about copyright though? Surely isn’t making money from creating content in a video game copyright infringement?

Game creators such as those at Minecraft understand that people want to play the game and show other people what they do and how they do things in games. So this idea of “Let’s Play”, allows the creators to get a broader audience to experience the game they created and legitimately shows people having fun while playing it. So the creators get some pretty free promotion and get to watch their community grow.

The use of Minecraft with YouTube and ads can be found here in the terms.

I have come across some Myths about copyright, by Brad Templeton which deal with a range of situations from Legal in court, to just being a crime, to just thinking it is free advertising.

Copyright copied pastied bcm112

(Ctrl C is copy, Ctrl V is paste, shortcuts for Windows)