Tag Archives: internet

An Animal That Beat Its Purpose

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I was given the freedom to look at how technology plays a role in society. I am always interested in animals so decided to look at how technology impacts the lives of animals. The more research I did the more I saw a pattern about how humans were using technology on animals. The following is an overview of my observations and critique about the ethical and unethical practices on animals.

When we use technology on animals it is to utilize the purpose of that animal to a greater extent that it was. This utilization plays a toll on the animals but it is for the benefit of humans that this happens. The dog for example is a creature designed for many things, hunting, companionship and even aides for the disabled. This ability in a lot of dogs is taught and trained in to dogs for the sake of human interaction. We teach dogs these things in order to better our lives without putting much focus on the natural behaviour of the dog. While there are restrictions on what breed of dogs do certain things, much like how smalls dogs aren’t usually out hunting other animals or Great Danes being used as seeing eye dogs; humans have picked and bred dogs in a manner to suit the needs for these dogs.

Seeing eye dog

Seeing Eye Dogs Australia Source

In a large amount of cases with dogs, when it comes to Dog Shows where trainers display their dog in a manner of a beauty pageant. There has been a lot of breeding for specific traits that people find ideal in a dog and want to keep that trait going through the generations. Over the past 100 years’ dogs have been intentionally altered to satisfy the needs of humans with little consideration for the animals. Pugs and Bulldogs for instance have been bred with a squashed face with little nasal room that causes difficulty breathing. Bulldogs have been bred to be bow legged as it was a desired trait. This breeding of dogs fulfils the purpose of the show dog lifestyle and also the demand for ideal traits in dogs that are desired by the rich and famous.

Dogs and many animals serve a purpose of companionship; to be a pet for an individual or a family. Technology has aided in this purpose by giving people the opportunity to live as long as they are capable of, despite the complications created from selective breeding. By introducing a market where people can get pet insurance on their animals for when injury strikes and they need special treatment from veterinarians. People with loving pets that have an excess amount of money want to make sure their pet gets the best treatment. When a dog gets sick and needs risky surgery there is a hefty price to pay for it. As more people, have gone through this experience there is market for veterinarians to have specialized skills and abilities with performing surgeries on animals that could at one stage could never have been performed.

Our interaction with animals is everywhere. A lot of our food comes from animals but not everyone knows how it gets to our plate from that animal; the process of how that animal gets treated on its journey to being killed. Cows provide us with an abundance of meat and milk based products. This is the cows purpose. Cows have been utilized for centuries as a technology has progressed so to the purpose of the cow. Cows have been bred for a separate purpose of either meat or milk. As each breed, has been treated in a different fashion to utilize its “natural” growth of meat or milk production. Holstein cows are raised to be milk production cows. Technology has impacted on the diet of the breed to boost milk production and consistency. Early research from Douglas and Rowlinson found that a happy and comfortable cow would produce more milk.

Herd of holstein milking cows in field. Cumbria - England

A Holstein Cow. Source

Continuing research found that by analysing each cow individually farmers can track every aspect of the cow and utilize that information to produce more milk. Afimilk tracks the behaviour of the cow to find out when it is in distress or is comfortable, tracks when the cow is in heat to allow the farmer to move the cow to the insemination field so the cow can get pregnant, tracks the weight of the cow to make sure that the cow is growing properly and can analyse the milk produced of the cow to make sure that there isn’t anything wrong with the cow and to make sure that the milk is appropriate for human consumption. With every technology that gets develop it can impact of the animals’ life. Artificial Insemination and Sexed Semen has been created to inseminate a cow with specific gendered semen without the need for a bull to get a cow pregnant.

Artificial Insemination has been a situation for both humans as it was a solution for couples or females who could not get pregnant in the natural fashion. Though considered unethical in many cases because it gives people the chance to be pregnant who naturally cannot it takes the power from natural progression to human capability. Though sexed semen is the ability to choose which gender you have your child whether you want a male or female it is still on ethical trial about being used in humans as gender preference can be considered sexual discrimination and warrant a change in natural balance of men and women over time. Luckily for cows however still considered unethical the impact it has increase the rate in which cows produce milk and utilize female calves. Hinde et al found that cows naturally produce more milk when they know they are giving birth to a female over a male. It is deemed that since cows live in a hierarchy society that if the cow cannot adequately produce enough milk to warrant the birth of a strong male then minimal milk will be produced. The best benefit for farmers was to make sure that cow would only breed female calves and so always have the best milk production rates possible.

The culmination of every technology impacted on cows brought down the natural rates in which a cow would naturally live its life. Holstein cows have a natural lifespan of around 20 years but the excessive increase of technology has brought that down to around 6 years. Technology gives people that chance to utilize the animals for as much as they are needed or as much as they are worth but gives no purpose in the animals’ welfare after the animals purpose has been done. Technology is a tool to better humans but to use on animals for the benefit of the human. To get the most out of the purpose of the animal. When we get food from an animal there is technology to grow the animal in the most effective and efficient way to produce as much meat as possible, where an animal is a companion there is technology to make sure the lifespan of that animal is as long as possible so humans can have them for as long as possible.

Technology as mentioned, is more ethically sound to be used on animals than it is on humans; with a large justification on it saying that the purpose of using animals is to benefit mankind. If humans cannot be used, though technology is being tested for humans then the next best thing are animals. While not every animal gets tested on to the same degree there is a significant way in which animals are bred for the purpose that they are needed for. Lab mice are one of the most common test subjects for scientists so they are bred with the natural intention to be used in the laboratory. While people are concerned about the treatment of animals it is the purpose of animals that drive what is being done to benefit society. Where we have organizations like People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (P.E.T.A) rallying against the treatment of animals for any scientific discovery it is the purpose of those animals to follow through with what they are meant to do. The animals are bred for a purpose if they are suddenly released they could impact natural order.

lab mice

A lab mouse. Source

Technology used on animals serves a purpose for the benefit of people. Technology used in any way succumbs to this notion that why use technology on animals if it serves no purpose to anyone else. Would it be a test of are we capable of creating something or doing something that we otherwise should not or do we just have the means to create something so we should see if we can?

We have animals that show high levels of intelligence much like the octopus that can get itself out screwed bottles; solve problems and even get out of its tank and move around to eat fish in a different tank and get back into theirs. Technology is being developed that aides in helping animals’ live their normal life – like a 3D printed foot for a duck. Thus, creating cyborg animals. It is only a matter of time before animals are having computers placed upon them, for them to be one with technology and develop the progression of how animals think and to challenge the true intellect of an animal. I wanted to follow the idea that technology used on animals goes beyond the purpose of the animal itself and so I created a Digital Artefact that sets out a future where technology has upgraded the intelligence and natural ability of an Octopus to where it has become one with technology; having the natural ability of an octopus, the upgrades of a computer and developing intelligence beyond that of a human and super computer.

Below is a written Let’s Play with a few pictures of the game I created “ATTACK OF THE CYBERPOD” as an expression of the future development of technology on animals. Here is information on the game.

ATTACK OF THE CYBERPOD

QUEEN BOARD

A better No1

Starting Positions

TURN 1

Human: Roll 7
Action Space “Upgrade at Half the Cost”
5 Mechanical Pieces = 5 upgrades
Undercut + Rocker Arm + Fit + Pinion + Planetary Gears = +5 Attack

Bottle: Roll 4
Mechanical Space “Boss”
Upgrades:
Shoulder + Broach = +1 Attack
Standoffs + knurl = +1 Attack
Flange + Boss = +1 Attack
Total upgrades = +3 Attack

Shark: Roll 6
Mechanical Space “Round”
Upgrades:
Lug + Sheave = +1 Attack
Rack + Chamfer = +1 Attack
Collet + Round = +1 Attack
Total Upgrades = +3 Attack

Cow: Roll 10
Attack the QUEEN (64)
0 Attack = 0 damage
QUEEN HP (64)
Upgrades:
Pillow Block + Retaining Ring = +1 Attack
Core + Coupling = +1 Attack
Total upgrades = +2 Attack

TURN 2

Human: Roll 7
Action Space “Draw 1 QUEEN Card”
Queen card “-1 Attack”
6 – 1 = 5 Attack

Bottle: Roll 3
Action Space “Upgrade at half the cost”
Nothing for upgrades 😦

Shark: Roll 7
QUEEN Space “Move back to Start”

Cow: Roll 8
Attack the QUEEN
2 Damage
64 – 2 = (62) HP
+1 Mechanical Piece “Die”
Upgrade:
Die + Yoke = +1 Attack

TURN 3

Human: Roll 6
Action Space “Deal 1 Damage to the Queen”
1 + 5 = 6 Damage
62 – 5 = (56) HP
+3 Mechanical Pieces “Fixture” “Counterbore” “Spotface”
Upgrades:
Fixture + Counterbore = +1 Attack

Bottle: Roll 3
Attack the QUEEN
56 – 3 = (53) HP
+1 Mechanical Piece “Pawl”

Shark: Roll 7
Action Space “Deal 2 Damage to the QUEEN”
2 + 4 = 6 Damage
53 – 6 = (47) HP
+3 Mechanical Pieces “Gage Blocks” “Burnish” “Relief”
Upgrade:
Burnish + Relief = +1 Attack

Cow: Roll 7
Mechanical Piece “Gear Hobbing”

TURN 4

Human: Roll 9
Mechanical Piece “Keyway”
Upgrades:
Spotface + Keyway = +1 Attack

Bottle: Roll 5
Mechanical Pieces “Face”
Upgrades:
Face + Pawl = +1 Attack

Shark: Roll 11
Attack the Queen
47 – 3 = (44) HP
TENTACLE DESTROYED
+1 Mechanical Piece “Fillet”
Upgrades:
Fillet + Gage Block = +1 Attack

Cow: Roll 6
Mechanical Piece “Gusset”
Upgrades:
Gear Hobbing + Gusset = +1 Attack

TURN 5

Human: Roll 3
QUEEN Space “Choose 1 damaged tentacle and place 1 piece back”
44 + 1 = (45) HP

Bottle: Roll 3
Attack the QUEEN
45 – 3 = (42) HP
TENTACLE DESTROYED
+1 Mechanical Piece “Bearings”

Shark: Roll 2 (Double 1’s)
Action Space “Move ahead 1 Space”
Action Space “Draw 2 Action Cards; Do Both”
Action Card “If the player that drew this card is playing as the Shark have another turn after this one”
Action Card “Upgrade at Half the Cost”
Roll 11
QUEEN Space “Lose all Mechanical Pieces”
Roll 12 (Double 6’s)
Passed START
+1 Mechanical Piece “Bell Crank”
Attack the QUEEN
42 – 6 = (36) HP
+3 Mechanical Pieces “Pad” “Hasp” “Kerf”
Roll 4
Action Space “Gain +1 Defence”
Upgrade:
Pad + Hop = +1 Attack
Kerf + Bell Crank = +1 Attack
Total Upgrades = +2 Attack

Cow: Roll 5
Landed on START
+1 Mechanical Piece “Gage”
Attack the QUEEN
36 – 4 = (32) Hp
+2 Mechanical Pieces “Ratchet” “Idler”
Upgrades:
Ratchet + Idler = +1 Attack

TURN 6

Human: Roll 3
QUEEN Space “Add 1 Piece back on to every damaged tentacle”
32 + 3 = (33) HP

Bottle: Roll 3
Action Space “Deal 1 Damage to the QUEEN”
33 – 5 = (30) HP
TENTACLE DESTROYED
+2 Mechanical Pieces “Collar” “Clevis”
Upgrades:
Collar + Clevis = +1 Attack

Shark: Roll 4
Action Space “Deal 1 damage to the QUEEN”
30 – 8 = (22) HP
TENTACLE DESTROYED
+4 Mechanical Pieces “Key” “Journal” Keyseat” “Bushing”
Upgrades:
Key + Journal = +1 Attack
Keyseat + Bushing = + 1 Def

Cow: Roll 7
Action Space “Go back to START”

TURN 7

Human: Roll 10
Passed START
+1 Mechanical Piece “Scotch Yoke”
Attack the QUEEN
22 – 3 = (19) HP
TENTACLE DESTROYED
+1 Mechanical Piece “Cam”
Action Space “Draw 2  Action Cards; Choose 1”
Action Cards: “Move ahead 3 space” or “Deal 1 Damage to the QUEEN”
19 – 8 = (11) HP
+4 Mechanical Pieces “Shim” “Ball and Detent” “Spline” “Tap”
Upgrades:
Cam + Scotch Yoke + Spline + Ball and Detent + Shim + Tap = Double the Stat of your choice
7 x 2 = 14 Attack

Bottle: Roll 9
Action Space “Lose Half of your Mechanical Pieces”
– Discard Bearings

Shark: Roll 9
Mechanical Piece “Geneva Cam”

Cow: Roll 6 (Double 3’s)
Mechanical Piece “Jig”
Roll 5
Mechanical Piece “Casting”
Upgrade:
Jig + Casting = +1 Attack

TURN 8

Human: Roll 8
QUEEN Space “Add 1 tentacle back on to every damaged tentacle”
11 + 1 = (12) HP

Bottle: Roll 5
QUEEN Space “-1 Attack Stat”
4 – 1 = 3 Attack

Shark: Roll 8
Action Space “+1 Defence”
2 + 1 = 3 Defence

Cow: Roll 11
Mechanical Piece “Countersink”
Upgrades:
Countersink + Gage = +1 Attack

TURN 9

Human: Roll 6
Mechanical Piece “Neck”
*Reshuffle used Mechanical Pieces Deck*

Bottle: Roll 9
Passed START
+1 Mechanical Piece “Bell Crank”
Attack the QUEEN
12 – 3 = (9) HP
+1 Mechanical Piece “Boss”
QUEEN Space “Lose 1 Mechanical Piece”
– discard Bell Crank

Shark: Roll 6
Passed START
+1 Mechanical Piece “Scotch Yoke”
Attack the QUEEN
9 – 8 = (1) HP
TENTACLE DESTROYED
+4 Mechanical Pieces “Spline” “Shim” “Tap” “Ball and Detent”
Action Space ” Destroy 1 of the QUEENS tentacles”
1 – 1 = (0) HP
TENTACLE DESTROYED
Upgrades:
Spline + Shim + Tap + Ball and Detent + Scotch Yoke + Geneva Cam = Double Attack
8 x 2 = 16 Attack
QUEEN DESTROYED

Number 2 the death

The QUEEN has seen the door of DEATH!

The stats into the revenge round 3

The Stats going into the second phase

                                                                                   REVENGE BOARD

The Battle Board start No.4

Players are going to face their greatest threat in order to reach salvation!

TURN 10
Character turn

Cow: Roll 7
-1 Attack
7 – 1 = 6 Attack

Human: Roll 10
+2 Attack
14 + 2 = 16 Attack

Bottle: Roll 7
+1 Attack
3 + 1 = 4 Attack

Shark: Roll 9
-1 Attack
16 – 1 = 15 Attack

Octopus Turn

Cow Octopus: Roll 7
[+1 Attack]

Human Octopus: Roll 9
[-1 Attack]

Bottle Octopus: Roll 5
FIGHT vs Shark
Shark has higher Move; gets a chance to escape {4} {1} No escape
4 Att – 3 def = 1 Damage
Shark loses 1 Move Stat

Shark Octopus: Roll 10

Turn 11
Character Turn

Cow: Roll 3
+2 Attack
6 + 2 = 8 Attack

Human: Rolled 6
START Space

Bottle: Roll 3

Shark: Roll 8

Octopus Turn

Cow Octopus: Roll 4
[+1 Attack]

Human Octopus: Roll 11
[Lose half your Defence]

Bottle Octopus: Roll 5
[-1 Move]

Shark Octopus: Roll 10
[Lose half your Defence]

TURN 12
Character Turn

Cow: Roll 2 (Double 1’s)
FIGHT vs Shark Octopus
16 Att – 0 def = 16 Damage
Cow loses 8 Attack
Cow has lost all stats
DEAD
Cow Octopus is now  BOMB
Second fight not fought
Doubles not rolled because of death

Human: Roll 9

Bottle: Roll 11
-1 Movement
0 – 0 = 0 Movement

Shark: Roll 5

Octopus Turn

Cow BOMB: Roll 4
[-1 Att]

Human Octopus: Roll 9

Bottle Octopus: Roll 7
FIGHT vs Human
4 Att – 0 Def = 4 Damage
Human loses 4 Attack
16 – 4 = 12 Attack

Shark Octopus: Roll 7
[+1 Attack]

TURN 13
Character Turn

Cow BOMB: Roll ??
FIGHT Bottle
10 Att – 1 Def = 9 Damage
Bottle loses 4 Attack
Bottle loses 1 Def
Bottle is DEAD
Bottle is now a BOMB

Human: Roll 5

Bottle BOMB: Roll 10 (Double 5’s)
Roll 9
[Lose half your Defence]

Shark: Roll 7

Octopus Turn

Cow BOMB: Roll 7

Human Octopus: Roll 4 (Double 2’s)
Roll 6
[+1 Attack]

Bottle BOMB: Roll 8 (Double 4’s)
[+1 Attack]
Roll 6
FIGHT vs Shark
10 Att – 3 Def = 7 Damage
Shark loses 3 Def = 0
Shark loses 1 Move = 0
Shark loses 3 Att = 12

Shark Octopus: Roll 7
[+2 Attack]

TURN 14
Character Turn

Cow BOMB: Roll 10

Human: Roll 8

Bottle BOMB: Roll 9

Shark: Roll 7
START Space

Octopus Turn

Cow BOMB: Roll 8
[+1 Attack]

Human Octopus: Roll 7
[+1 Attack]

Bottle BOMB: Roll 5
[+1 Attack]

Shark Octopus: Roll 4

TURN 15
Character Turn

Cow BOMB: Roll 11

Human: Roll 10 (Double 5’s)
START Space
Roll 3
+1 Attack

Bottle BOMB: Roll 8
[+1 Attack]

Shark: Roll 12 (Double 6’s)
START Space
Roll 9

Octopus Turn

Cow BOMB: Roll 11
FIGHT vs Shark
10 Att – 0 Def = 10 Damage
Shark loses 10 Attack = 2 Attack

Human Octopus: Roll 6
[Double Attack for Next Fight Only)

Bottle BOMB: Roll 9
OCTOPUS START Space
JUMP to nearest Character and FIGHT
FIGHT vs Shark
10 Att – 0 Def = 10 Damage
Shark loses 2 Attack = 0
Shark is DEAD

                                                                                       HUMAN WINS!!!

The final battle No.5

The Final Battle!

Notes:
Human was represented by Mine-cart Steve; Octopus by Mine-cart Pig
Bottle was represented by Leather Steve; Octopus by Skeleton
Shark was represented by Diamond Steve; Octopus by Sheep
Cow was represented by Ginger Steve; Octopus by Zombie
Words presented in [square brackets] imply that the space has no affect on the Octopus

NBN and high-control speed

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Julia Gillard becomes Australia’s 27th Prime Minister with a promise to fulfill an idea of a National Broadband Network (NBN) first brought to our attention by ex Prime Minister Kevin Rudd with the intention of every Australian having access to high-speed internet regardless of location within Australia. This undertaking of the NBN would bring Australia to a new era of high-speed internet that has never been seen before and comparable to other developed countries. By stripping out the old copper network and replacing it with fiber cable straight to the premise the connectivity Australia would have to the internet would be comparable to other developed countries with direct links to the internet, the world and the benefits. This plan however with the logistics and undertaking of implementing the NBN is Australia’s largest infrastructure project in history and has gone through some hurdles since it first started.

One of those hurdles was the changing of Australian Government. Changing from Labor to Liberal with Tony Abbott as Australia’s newest Prime Minister, the NBN changed with him. The first proposal of fiber-to-the-premise (FTTP) became fiber-to-the-node where fiber was only being introduced to the nodes around Australia with the copper wiring staying from the node to the premise. This presented the idea of information bottlenecks – where the speed was reduced because of mass information being carried and strained at the node, which would slow down the overall speed of the internet based on the amount of users per area which want to connect.

The impact of the NBN on people would depend on the needs of individuals, families and businesses. This impact of the NBN would be seen based on the connectivity that people have now. Families with children are more likely to connect to the NBN based on the demand for information for the children. People who are single look at the cost of internet providers to justify why they should connect and how they should connect. This difference of interest based on who wants to connect impacts on the interest of the NBN. While valuing high-speed internet and what it can do – better connectivity, better information and more of an impact in the digital economy It is the potential possibilities of the NBN that are an interest to those that connect. (Nansen, B)

The capabilities of the NBN are shown to be a positive thing where the NBN is the next step for future Australia and is something that Australia can not go without. Currently with Internet Service Providers (ISP) the power for control over information can be even greater. Not specific to the NBN but those that will control the next stage of internet access there is a need to understand Network Neutrality. Network Neutrality deals with the equal treatment of Data, explained by the following video:

Network Neutrality deals with ISP’s showing equality with every piece of information on the internet. So there is no favorable information that organizations and businesses are pushing for consumption and no information that is restricted. Currently Australia has no Network Neutrality, the idea has never been suggested as it doesn’t cause much of a problem because of healthy competition thanks to Telstra ADSL as it is free to use for other competitors, and thanks to consumer protection laws by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC), that is when big providers block or slow down consumer access purposely to take out competitors then the ACCC will get involved. While the ACCC keeps providers relatively inline there are some situations where there is intentional favoritism.

Source

Big Pond showing favoritism to websites with a green dot. Source

The impact of Network Neutrality in Australia has developed in a way where the gradual process of technology becoming more of an important aspect of everyday life has self-monitored its way where the subtle anti-competitive behavior blends in – there may be no slowing down of competition but an interest in providing free downloads for particular websites.

In America, Network Neutrality has come under threat as the big providers AT&T and Verizon have challenged the Network Neutrality rules that are in place and have successfully been allowed to control what information is monitored and restricted. This successful challenge has the potential to restrict popular sharing sites such as Netflix on how they maintain an audience and what they can provide as a service. The control over companies that use ISP’s would come under threat as they would have to follow what the big providers suggest or be at risk of having there service limited. This also impacts on the individual user, the freedom to get information from any company would also be restricted based on the preference for the ISP that they are with. Depending on the ISP affiliations and interests the user would have to deal with it and not have the ability to do anything about it. While there is always the option to change providers, if the big providers secure a monopoly then there will no room for other options.

Comparable, Australia to America are at different stages for what their networks do and how they are maintained. The introduction of the NBN could give way the same possibilities that America currently has and possibly worse scenarios of control information already shown in Australia. The control of data is already present but how will it affect Australia with an increased digital economy when the NBN comes around.

 

References (in order of appearance)

National Archive of Australia, Australian Prime Ministers – Julia Gillard, accessed 25 August 2014 http://primeministers.naa.gov.au/primeministers/gillard/in-office.aspx

Advanced NBN, The National Broadband Network, accessed 25 August 2014 http://www.anbn.com.au/aboutanbn.html

Hackett, S 2011 ‘Peering Policy Gaps with the National Broadband Network’ accessed 24 August 2014 http://blog.internode.on.net/2011/05/16/peering-policy-gaps-nbn/

Nansen, B Arnold, M Wilken, R and Gibbs, M 2012 ‘Broadbanding Brunswick – High-speed Broadband and Household Media Ecologies: A report on Household Take-up and Adoption of the National Broadband Network in a First release Site‘, Australian Communications Consumer Action Network, Sydney

Schaffarczyk, K 2014 ‘Australia’s net neutrality lesson for the US’ accessed 25 August 2014 http://theconversation.com/australias-net-neutrality-lesson-for-the-us-22245

Mick, J 2014 ‘Network CEO Warns of Possible Future, Post-Net Neutrality’, accessed 25 August 2014 http://www.dailytech.com/Netflix+CEO+Warns+of+Possible+Grim+Future+PostNet+Neutrality/article34189.htm

We have an idea but we need permission

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Dealing with copyright is a tough situation with today’s law – when having instant access to technology and content from all over the world at the touch of a button, what is the chance that we have downloaded or just seen something that has been copyrighted, or even without knowing that it was copyrighted – we must be a felon!

We are constantly connected to the internet in today’s society and so we have a constant access to what other people do and create, we can watch but cannot touch. However the strict laws that apply with copyright today were not always the case – just around a century ago Walt Disney had an idea of cartoons and music synchronized to form a brand new idea – his creation of Steamboat Willie now famously known as Mickey Mouse. The idea Walt Disney had created went further in utilizing stories that other people had created and giving those stories a new sense of being. Explored by Lessig Walt Disney has created a culture that is still relevant today and without taking the stories of others Disney Inc. would not be what it is today.

The constant development of the internet and the culture that it has created, there is an obvious creation that if copyright was severely enforced there would get a lot of people in trouble. I am talking about the Meme – from cats to people, objects to human imagination, the internet has created and utilized the meme as an expression of today’s time.

Copyright meme

Memes have infiltrated all mediums of communication and are troublesome when it comes to copyright, particularly when dealing with viral memes, as shown in this article on Forbes.com – Warner Brother has been sued for using Nyan Cat and, other cat based memes in one of their games.

The culture that technology and the internet has created is one of freedom for expression and creativity – while the law of copyright still looms, the use of the internet and the collective creations that come from it are an example of what people can do without the restrictions of copyright.

In the beginning was the mainframe and then it took a selfie

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Exploring all the ends of cyberspace cannot be done but taking advantage and understanding the processes that cyberspace, in particular the creation of the internet, presents to humanity is a step closer to a global village and maybe a cyber-utopia. In this technological age the transition from offline communication to online involvement is a necessary step in future operations and endeavours but what is the cost of this transition.

Kevin Kelly provides a detailed insight into the necessity that a new economy has emerged and this economy can be used effectively to sustain people, we have become engulfed in what has been presented to us – intentionally or by discovery, by cyberspace and the internet and we are in need. So why not take advantage and be a part of cyberspace – the freedom and possibilities are up to the user to create.

Similar positive responses about cyberspace/the internet from Barlow, and Dyson – Barlow presents that the internet is a place of freedom and expression from the oppression and ‘iron-fist’ of governments, as what can be created goes beyond the boundaries of a country and its rules, cyberspace is a place that does not show prejudice to people but, explained by Dyson, that cyberspace is an ecosystem where an individual can create what they want and the world they want to live in.

As open and free cyberspace allows and the dreams that plan to be created through the internet, there are present issues that arise by human use. Presented by Sherry Turkle in the following TED talk “Connected, but alone?”

Turkle explains the interaction that technology has created on people and what effects it has on the individual are not places that are ideal for growth and development of a cyber-utopia. Seeing the internet as an escape from the real world, for an individual to become a spot on the vast space that is cyberspace has created a new generation of social problems – what is being done?  Issues such as trolling and flaming, trends such as selfies and the anonymity that the internet creates provides the current generation with either the possibilities that are helpful to the exploration and creation of what is to come, or hinders this change and is stuck with the understanding of how to search something thought not implement what has been searched.

Cyberspace – space for one

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Brought up in a world where everyone is connected to everything and anything, there are still groups of people that I can not completely connect to or let alone understand, such as other generations, and the people that are found by the presence of technology – the people with multiple personalities (one face-to-face, the other on the web). Being a part of generation Y has come at the introduction and coinciding development of technology and with growing up becoming an adult. With the push of technology on us, to be a part of the cyber-culture, the prospects of what life would be, would only get better for everyone involved, going towards ‘utopia’?

Through the change of technology brings this empowerment to the individual that uses the technology to create something interesting and beneficial, something that has developed into an important part of people’s lives – whether it is a mode of communication or a game that utilizes creativity and global interaction such as MUDs. MUDs being text base games – such as Wheel of Time a 15 year long running free playable game.

As easy as empowerment comes to the individual, organizations, if technology savvy, can become bigger contenders at controlling and marketing their agendas on a much larger audience, highlighted in this article by Prospect Magazine. The hopeful change of control from large corporations still has a significant hold on large audiences today – instead of the subliminal messaging and ‘inconspicuous’ brand marketing there is now internet tracking of what people do and records being kept of this information.

The change of technology and the exploration of what the internet has become has influenced and challenged people – creating a cyberspace, created and designed a space for each individual. This ‘individual’ place of content creates issues when surrounded by other ‘individual’ creations, explored by Lessig, cyberspace is meant to be a greater form/medium of communication between people but when certain formalities occur then who is to enforce what should be done and what decision should be made.

Lucky to be born a white male

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The Internet – a place in which people around the world can communicate. There has always been an issue about the freedom that the internet provides. The anonymity of posting and responding to any comment that someone has made – changing the idea of ‘creative criticism’ to outright abuse.

Lucky to be born a male; any abuse made would be quite different when having an opinion, compared to that of a women. The internet is being used as a tool for the possible ‘suppressed’ misogynist that is present in the average male. The faceless interactions, lack of regulation and the inability to do anything by the target, leads to a public outcry. Brought to our attention is the website ‘The Anti-Bogan’ which highlights the offensive and abusive messages said by Australians to other Australians. Is there a transition, a ‘fine line’ from when free speech becomes hate speech?

Looking at the difference between the abuse that men receive compared to the abuse women receive over the internet is of some concern. Women are more common to get abusive messages relating to sexual acts, either by rape (human, animal or object), mutation of sexual organs or the accusation of being ‘whores’, ‘sluts’ and ‘slags’, for example (the abuse isn’t always just from men).

A majority of the internet exacerbates the issue of sexism, such as through humour with the following e-cards and memes:

sexist ecard

sexist meme

There seems to still be an inequality when it comes to certain issues, much like the case of women on the internet, the specific sexual abusive messages that they receive and the portrayal of women on social media.

When does the abuse become too much to handle for an individual? The female personalities on the internet need to be aware of certain opinions that may fuel a ‘flame war’, which could easily get off topic – changing from creative criticism to just abuse.